Could you outrun a lava flow? Take the everything volcanoes quiz!

CORRECT ANSWERS: 0

Rushing lava. Wild flames. Devastation and destruction. Those images are iconic representations of a volcano, but are they the whole story? Do all active volcanoes lead to such ruin? What causes volcanoes to erupt in the first place?

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Question 1 of 20

How much variation in destructive power is there among volcanoes?

There is great variation.
There is moderate variation.
They are all about the same.

... Volcanoes differ greatly in the amount of damage they cause. Lava can burst out of one and, in minutes, the surrounding area is devastated. On the other hand, during some eruptions you can simply walk away and avoid flowing lava.

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Question 2 of 20

Magma is a ________.

gas
liquid
solid
all of the above

... Magmas is fluid molten rock below the earth's surface. It's a stew of liquids, solids and gases.

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Question 3 of 20

Which part of the Earth melts to form magma?

core
inner crust
mantle
outer crust

... The second geological layer of the Earth, the mantle, is normally very hot, yet solid because of extreme pressure. When volcanoes form, though, the mantle does melt.

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Question 4 of 20

Why does magma erupt?

external gas pressure
internal gas pressure
shifting plates
all of the above

... Part of the composition of magma is dissolved gasses. When pressure of the gas exceeds the pressure of the rock encasing the magma, the gas expands and forms bubbles. These eventually escape, taking the magma with them.

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Question 5 of 20

Which type of magma produces a more explosive eruption?

very fluid magma
less fluid magma
The fluidity of the magma is not a variable.

... Magma that is very viscous (doesn't flow easily) makes it harder for gas bubbles to escape. Therefore, the bubbles will take more magma out of the volcano with them. Magma with less viscosity (flowing more easily) allows the bubbles to readily escape, so the eruption is less intense.

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Question 6 of 20

Slow-moving lava is referred to as _________.

effusive
fulsome
loud
strident

... "Effusive" lava is destructive to the environment it encounters. Its slow speed renders it relatively harmless to people, however, because they can avoid the flow.

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Question 7 of 20

Rocks that are solid lava are __________.

carbonatitic
lamprophyric
melititic
pyroclastic

... Pyroclastic rocks are solid volcanic matter. They are often found in the initial explosion of a volcano, along with gas and ash.

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Question 8 of 20

The type of eruption that destroyed the ancient city of Pompeii was _________.

hydrovolcanic
plinian
strombolian
vulcanian

... Mt. Vesuvius wiped out Pompeii in 79 A.D. during a "plinian" eruption. This is characterized by magma that is very viscous, with a high gas content. The gases can push volcanic matter 30 feet (9 meters) above the surface. The lava flow is swift and destructive.

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Question 9 of 20

Which of the following types of eruption does not usually have a lava flow?

fissure eruption
hawaiian
plinian
vulcanian

... Vulcanian eruptions are characterized by short, gaseous bursts. They throw out ash and large pyroclastic rocks, but not lava.

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Question 10 of 20

Many volcanoes with a "scoria cone" shape erupt ______.

only once
many times, but hundreds of years apart
frequently (every few years)

... Scoria cone volcanoes are the most common shape. The sides are steep and the opening is wide. Many erupt only once.

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Question 11 of 20

What often forms when a "caldera" structure is created by a volcano?

archipelago
canyon
lake
mountain

... A caldera forms when a volcano collapses in on itself, forming a round basin. Water gathers there and creates a lake.

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Question 12 of 20

In the movie Joe Versus the Volcano (1990), Joe, played by Tom Hanks, is recruited to jump into a volcano because ________.

an industrialist needs raw materials
an investment banker wants to buy an island
a gangster doesn't want to personally pay off a lost bet

... In the film, industrialist Samuel Graynamore needs the mineral "bubaru" to manufacture superconductors. It is available on a Pacific Island, but before it can be mined, the island's residents want a sacrificial volunteer to appease the island's volcano.

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Question 13 of 20

What happens when Joe's volcano erupts?

The island it is on is blown to bits.
The island it is on sinks into the ocean.
The volcano never erupts.

... After Joe and his new wife jump into the volcano, it erupts and hurls them to relative safety in the ocean, where they are later rescued. The volcano's island sinks.

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Question 14 of 20

During the last 200 years, about how many volcanic eruptions have killed more than 1,000 people?

20
75
150
250

... There have been about 20 volcano eruptions in the last two centuries that have directly led to tremendous loss of human life.

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Question 15 of 20

Ninety percent of volcanoes are located within the "Ring of Fire," which is in the ________.

Arctic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
Indian Ocean
Pacific Ocean

... The Ring of Fire, located in the Pacific Ocean, is composed of collided tectonic plates that form a 25,000 mile circle in which there is high volcanic activity.

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Question 16 of 20

Which country has the most people living near active volcanoes?

Chile
Ecuador
Indonesia
Japan

... Indonesia has 129 active volcanoes spread around the country. One Indonesian island, Java, has 30 volcanoes looming over 120 million people.

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Question 17 of 20

One of the volcanoes on Java is "Merapi," which means "___________."

ashen peak
exploding mound
fire mountain
spewing mount

... Merapi, the "fire mountain," is almost 10,000 feet tall (3,048 meters) and is very active.

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Question 18 of 20

The theory of plate tectonics, which is used to explain volcanoes, was developed ___________.

by the ancient Greeks
by the ancient Romans
during the Enlightenment
during the 20th century

... Scientists developed the concept of plate tectonics during the 1960s. It depicts the Earth's outer surface divided into sections that shift incredibly slowly.

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Question 19 of 20

Which natural disaster can be caused by a volcano?

drought
giant hail
mudslide
tornado

... If mountains surrounding an erupting volcano are covered with snow, that snow can quickly melt, causing mud flows that can cover both the natural landscape and human settlements.

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Question 20 of 20

Most of the volcanoes that are highest above sea level are in the ___________ Mountains.

Andes
Atlas
Himalayan
Sierra Madre

... Fewer than 100 volcanoes lie above 5,000 meters. Most of them are in the central part of the Andes Mountains in South America.

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